In the last decade Russia has re-emerged as the principle Peer Adversary in the mind of Western (and especially European) states. Operations against Georgia, Ukraine, in Syria and perceived threats against the Baltic 3 have caused great consternation and alarm in the West, specifically on what we have decided to call “hybrid warfare.” Central in this approach is the use of deception—a key principle of war and an integral part of the Russian military & defence mindset. The seminar will explore Russian military thinking, and demonstrate that Russian use of deception, and indeed hybrid warfare, is neither new, nor impossible to counter, but is better than the West’s current capabilities in the same field.